Scientific truth: consensual-expert nature

Authors: Lebedev S.A. Published: 19.06.2019
Published in issue: #3(77)/2019  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2019-3-601  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Philosophy Science  
Keywords: scientific cognition, scientific truth, subject of scientific cognition, unit of scientific knowledge, level of scientific knowledge, scientific consensus

The paper focuses on the concept of the consensual nature of scientific truths. The concept is based on a constructive-representative interpretation of the process of scientific cognition at all its basic levels: sensual, empirical, theoretical and meta-theoretical. This concept is an alternative to two erroneous paradigms in understanding the nature of scientific truth: empiric and rationalistic. According to the empiric, i.e. positivistic, paradigm, empirical experience is considered to be the basis, source and criterion of truth of any unit of scientific knowledge. However, the nature of the truth of mathematical knowledge, as well as modern scientific theories in science, contradicts with this paradigm. According to the rationalistic paradigm, every scientific truth is a product of thinking, the main methods of which are intuition, idealization and deduction. The rationalistic paradigm of scientific truth contradicts with the methods of obtaining and certifying sensory data in science, as well as scientific facts and empirical laws. Unlike empiricism and rationalism, in the consensual concept of the nature of scientific truths, the process of scientific cognition is interpreted as the one of a social nature, and its main subject is not a scientist, but a disciplinary scientific community. The process of obtaining, substantiating and evaluating the truth of the results of scientific cognition is based not only on the subject-object cognitive relation, but also on the communication relations within the scientific community. Hence, the assessment of the truth of any unit of scientific knowledge, of necessity, is of expert and consensual nature

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