Andreas Reyher’s "Schulmethodus" and the first German schools in Moscow

Authors: Polyakova M.A. Published: 05.03.2014
Published in issue: #2(16)/2014  
DOI: 10.18698/2306-8477-2014-2-167  
Category: The Humanities in Technical University | Chapter: Historical Sciences and Archaeology  
Keywords: Reformation, "Schulmethodus", vocation, elementary education, catechism, the school charter, Lutheran community, the German settlement, Officer Community

At present there is an increasing interest to schools and school education, which is reflected in its reformation. A similar tendency could be observed in Russia, as the system of school education here was created and developed in accordance with German pedagogical tradition dating back to the epoch of Reformation and its founder Martin Luther. This fact, however, is not sufficiently discussed in specialized historical and pedagogical literature. As for Luther's followers Ernst the Pious and Andreas Reyher, who established compulsory elementary education in Duchy of Saxon-Got in 1642, their activity is not studied in the Russian pedagogy at all. At the same time the program document "Schulmethodus", which declared the compulsory education in the duchy for all classes of the population, was the basis for the first school charter in Lutheran community in Moscow in 1678. German schools in Moscow were carrying out the educational activity, teaching not only the Germans-Lutherans, but also the representatives of other nationalities and religions, later - the Russian children as well. The education was free, thanks to financial support from Ernst the Pious and later - from the tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich. The tuition system at the first schools laid the foundation for the further development of school education in this country.

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